Welcome to the second edition of UNCTAD’s SDG Pulse – UNCTAD’s annual statistical publication reporting on developments relating to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (United Nations, 2015) and the Sustainable Development Goals (Sustainable Development Goal). The purpose of this report, published on 8 July 2020, is to: provide an update on the evolution of a selection of official Sustainable Development Goal indicators and complementary data and statistics; provide progress reports on the development of new concepts and methodologies for UNCTAD custodian indicators; and to also showcase, beyond the perspective of the formal SDG indicators, how UNCTAD is contributing to the implementation of 2030 Agenda. The report will also investigate thematic issues of relevance to 2030 Agenda – this year, the report discusses the impact of Infectious disease caused by the strain of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 discovered in December 2019. Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses which may cause illness in animals or humans. In humans, several coronaviruses are known to cause respiratory infections ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The most recently discovered coronavirus causes coronavirus disease COVID-19 . from a statistical viewpoint.
The report is organized by four broad categories:
The report can be read by theme. Here the indicators are sub-divided across the three themes to which UNCTADs work contributes: multilateralism for trade & development; productive growth; and structural transformation. Through this thematic lens, a wide range of indicators are presented and issues discussed, including: recent trends in trade, including barriers to trade, and policies to promote trade; investment, transport infrastructure, Information and communications technology (ICT) is a diverse set of technological tools and resources used to transmit, store, create, share or exchange information. These resources include computers, the Internet, live broadcasting technologies, recorded broadcasting technologies and telephony . for sustainable development, and A country’s capacity to finance its policy objectives through debt instruments and service the ensuing debt .; and industry, high value-added and sustainability.
The SDG indicators presented in this report are also categorised by goal. The goals and indicators selected reflect UNCTAD’s broad mandate of economic and sustainable development. In some cases, UNCTAD is the custodian or co-custodian agency for the indicator. These indicators are supplemented with other complementary indicators. The SDG indicators presented in this report are:
- Indicator 2.a.2: Total For the purpose of the SDGs, official international support refers to assistance in the form of official development assistance and other official flows . to agriculture
- Indicator 2.b.1: Agricultural Export subsidies refer to the granting of support by governments to some beneficiary entity or entities to achieve export objectives. Export subsidies may involve direct payments to a firm, industry, producers of a certain agricultural product etc. to achieve some type of export performance. In addition, export subsidies may include low cost export loans, rebates on imported raw materials and tax benefits such as duty-free imports of raw material. They can also take the form of government financed marketing. Most subsidies have existed in agriculture. .
- Indicator 2.c.1: Indicator of Food price anomalies refer to abnormally high or low market prices for food commodities. The indicator relies on a weighted compound growth rate that accounts for both within-year and across-year price growth. The indicator directly evaluates growth in prices over a particular month over many years, taking into account seasonality in agricultural markets and inflation, allowing to answer the question of whether or not a change in price is abnormal for any particular period. It is measured by SDG indicator 2.c.1 .
- Indicator 8.9.1: Tourism direct GDP measures direct contributions of tourism to the national economy, since tourism does not exist as a separate industry in the standard industrial classification. Instead, it is embedded in various other industries. (no SDG metadata)
- Indicator 8.a.1: Aid for Trade commitment is a firm obligation, expressed in writing and backed by the necessary funds, undertaken by an official donor to provide specified assistance to a recipient country or a multilateral organisation . and disbursements
- Indicator 9.1.2: Passenger and freight volumes, by mode of transport
- Indicator 9.2.1: Manufacturing value added (MVA) is the net-output of all resident manufacturing activity units. It is obtained by adding up their outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs . Manufacturing can broadly be understood as "the physical or chemical transformation of materials, substances, or components into new products" , consisting of sector C in the International Standard Industrial Classification of all Economic Activities (ISIC) revision 4 .
- Indicator 9.4.1: Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colourless, odourless and non-poisonous gas formed by combustion of carbon and in the respiration of living organisms . Emission is the discharge of pollutants into the atmosphere from stationary sources such as smokestacks, other vents, surface areas of commercial or industrial facilities and mobile sources, for example, motor vehicles, locomotives and aircraft . per unit of value added
- Indicator 9.5.1: Research and development (R&D) comprise creative and systematic work undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge – including knowledge of humankind, culture and society – and to devise new applications of available knowledge . expenditure
- Indicator 9.5.2: Researchers relative to population
- Indicator 9.a.1: Total official international support to infrastructure
- Indicator 9.b.1: Proportion of Medium and high-tech industry is an industry in which producers of goods incur relatively high expenditure on research and development (R&D) per unit of output. The distinction between low, medium, and high-tech industries is based on R&D intensity, i.e. the ratio of R&D expenditure to an output measure, usually gross value added. For a list of the particular economic activities, considered to be medium and high-tech . value added
- Indicator 9.c.1: Proportion of population covered by a mobile network
- Indicator 10.a.1: Proportion of tariff lines with zero-tariff*
- Indicator 10.b.1: In the context of the IAEG-SDG, these flows quantify the overall expenditures that donors provide to developing countries, including official and private flows, both concessional and non-concessional. Specifically, they include ODA, OOFs and private flows . for development
- Indicator 12.6.1: Number of companies publishing sustainability reports*
- Indicator 16.4.1: Total value of inward and outward illicit financial flows*
- Indicator 17.2.1: Net Official Development Assistance (ODA) are resource flows to countries and territories which are: (a) undertaken by the official sector; (b) with promotion of economic development and welfare as the main objective; (c) at concessional financial terms (implying a minimum grant element depending on the recipient country and the type of loan). In addition to financial flows, technical co-operation is also included ., total and to Least developed country
- Indicator 17.3.1: Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is an investment involving a long-term relationship and reflecting a lasting interest and control by a resident entity in one economy (foreign direct investor or parent enterprise) in an enterprise resident in an economy other than that of the foreign direct investor (FDI enterprise or affiliate enterprise or foreign affiliate) ., Official Development Assistance (ODA) are resource flows to countries and territories which are: (a) undertaken by the official sector; (b) with promotion of economic development and welfare as the main objective; (c) at concessional financial terms (implying a minimum grant element depending on the recipient country and the type of loan). In addition to financial flows, technical co-operation is also included . and Broad framework of collaboration among countries of the Global South in the political, economic, social, cultural, environmental and technical domains. It includes trade, FDI, regional integration efforts, technology transfers, sharing of solutions and experts, and other forms. Involving two or more developing countries, it can take place on a bilateral, regional, intraregional or interregional basis .*
- Indicator 17.4.1: Payments made to satisfy a debt obligation, including principal, interest and any late payment fees . as a share of exports of goods and services
- Indicator 17.5.1: Implement investment promotion regimes for LDCs*
- Indicator 17.6.2: Fixed Internet A general term meaning a telecommunications signal or device of greater bandwidth, in some sense, than another standard or usual signal or device. In data communications, this refers to a data transmission rate of at least 256 kbit/s. In the context of Internet, this can be delivered via fixed (wired) or mobile networks . subscriptions
- Indicator 17.8.1: Proportion of individuals using the Internet
- Indicator 17.10.1: Worldwide Weighted average of tariffs applied to imports of goods in HS chapter 01-97. The tariffs are weighted by the value of the imported goods to which they are applied. It is expressed as percentage of the value of goods imported. The average level of customs tariff rates applied worldwide can be used as an indicator of the degree of success achieved by multilateral negotiations and regional trade agreements. See metadata for indicator 17.10.1 .*
- Indicator 17.11.1 Developing countries and LDCs' share of global exports*
- Indicator 17.12.1: Tariffs “are customs duties on merchandise imports, levied either on an ad valorem basis (percentage of value) or on a specific basis (e.g. $7 per 100 kg). Tariffs can be used to create a price advantage for similar locally produced goods and for raising government revenues. Trade remedy measures and taxes are not considered to be tariffs.” faced by developing countries, LDCs and Small island developing States*
UNCTAD runs a wide-ranging capacity development programme to support progress towards the 2030 Agenda. This report presents some case studies from UNCTAD’s development programme from a statistical perspective – presenting UNCTAD’s activities and successes in hard numbers. These case studies are important as they also illustrate the Results Based Management approach adopted by UNCTAD – helping us to improve our responsiveness and accountability to member states.
Every year, the SDG Pulse will highlight a specific aspect of the 2030 Agenda and discuss this issue from the slant or perspective of statistics. This edition discusses the economic, social and environmental impacts of COVID-19 and its implications for the continuation of statistical production. It also highlights some risks for future privacy, of quickly adopting contact tracing apps today.
Data and country classifications
All data used in maps and charts can be downloaded by clicking on the top right of each data visualization. The country classification used in these data files is available in SdgPulse2020_economies.csv.
The designations employed and the presentation of material on this web site do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. A dispute exists between the Governments of Argentina and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland concerning sovereignty over the Falkland Islands (Malvinas). The final boundary between the Republic of Sudan and the Republic of South Sudan has not yet been determined. The final status of the following territories has not yet been agreed or determined: Abyei area, Aksai Chin, Arunachal Pradesh, Bi’r Tawil, Hala’ib Triangle, Ilemi Triangle, Jammu and Kashmir, Kuril Islands, Paracel Islands, Scarborough Shoal, Senkaku Islands, Spratly Islands.
The designations “developing”, “in transition”, and “developed” are intended for statistical convenience and do not necessarily express a judgement about the stage reached by a particular country or area in the development process.
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