Glossary

3G
Third generation of cellular network technology
4G
Fourth generation of cellular network technology
Ad-valorem equivalent
A tariff that is not a percentage (eg, dollars per ton) can be estimated as a percentage of the price — the ad valorem equivalent (WTO, 2019b). WTO (2019b). Glossary - a guide to ‘WTO speak’. Available at https://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/glossary_e/glossary_e.htm (accessed 14 June 2019).
Advanced reporting requirement
Advanced reporting requirement represents a set of reporting elements, beyond the minimum reporting requirement, which demand additional information from companies in their sustainability reports for the purpose of measuring SDG indicator 12.6.1 (UNCTAD, 2017). UNCTAD (2017). Enhancing comparability of sustainability reporting: Selection of core indicators for company reporting on the contribution towards the attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals. TD/B/C.II/ISAR/81. Geneva. 11 September.
AFCFTA
African Continental Free Trade Agreement
Aid
The word “aid” in this publication refers only to flows which qualify as ODA.
Aid for Trade
Aid for Trade measures aimed at assisting developing countries to increase exports of goods and services, to integrate into the multilateral trading system, and to benefit from liberalized trade and increased market access. It is considered as part of ODA. Effective Aid for Trade will enhance growth prospects and reduce poverty in developing countries, as well as complement multilateral trade reforms and distribute the global benefits more equitably across and within developing countries. (WTO, 2006). It is measured as gross disbursements and commitments of total ODA from all donors for Aid for Trade (United Nations, 2019). United Nations (2019). SDG indicators: Metadata repository. Available at https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/metadata/ (accessed 14 May 2019)
Aid for Trade commitment
Aid for Trade commitment is a firm obligation , expressed in writing and backed by the necessary funds, undertaken by an official donor to provide specified assistance to a recipient country or a multilateral organisation (OECD, 2019a; AidFlows, 2019). AidFlows (2019). Glossary of AidFlows terms. Available at http://www.aidflows.org/about/ (accessed 17 June 2019) OECD (2019a). DAC glossary of key terms and concepts. Available at http://www.oecd.org/dac/dac-glossary.htm (accessed 15 May 2019)
Aid for Trade disbursements
Aid for Trade disbursements refer to the release of funds to or the purchase of goods or services for a recipient; by extension, the amount thus spent. Disbursements record the actual international transfer of financial resources, or of goods or services valued at the cost to the donor (AidFlows, 2019; OECD, 2019a) AidFlows (2019). Glossary of AidFlows terms. Available at http://www.aidflows.org/about/ (accessed 17 June 2019) OECD (2019a). DAC glossary of key terms and concepts. Available at http://www.oecd.org/dac/dac-glossary.htm (accessed 15 May 2019)
Arm’s length principle
International standard that compares the transfer pricing charged between related entities with the price of similar transactions carried out between independent entities under comparable circumstances to determine acceptable transfer prices (United Nations, 2017). United Nations (2017). Practical Manual on Transfer Pricing for Developing Countries 2017. United Nations publication. Sales No. E.17.XVI.2. New York.
AU
African Union
B2C
Business to consumer
BIT
Bilateral investment treaty A type of IIA made between two countries regarding promotion and protection of investments made by investors from one country in the other country’s territory, which commits the host country government to grant certain standards of treatment and protection to foreign investors (nationals and companies of the other country) and their investments (UNCTAD, 2019a). UNCTAD (2019a). IIA Navigator. Available at https://investmentpolicyhubold.unctad.org/IIA (accessed 15 May 2019).
Broadband
A general term meaning a telecommunications signal or device of greater bandwidth, in some sense, than another standard or usual signal or device. In data communications, this refers to a data transmission rate of at least 256 kbit/s. In the context of Internet, this can be delivered via fixed (wired) or mobile networks. (ITU, 2014) ITU (2014). Manual for Measuring ICT Access and Use by Households and Individuals. International Telecommunication Union. Geneva.
Carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colourless, odourless and non-poisonous gas formed by combustion of carbon and in the respiration of living organisms (OECD, 2019). OECD (2019). Glossary of statistical terms. Available at https://stats.oecd.org/glossary/index.htm (accessed 19 April 2019).
Carbon dioxide equivalent
Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) is a measure used to compare the emissions from various greenhouse gases based upon their global warming potential. It represents the quantity of carbon dioxide that has equal global warming potential as the given quantity of a greenhouse gas (OECD, 2019). OECD (2019). Glossary of statistical terms. Available at https://stats.oecd.org/glossary/index.htm (accessed 19 April 2019).
Carbon intensity
Carbon intensity is the amount of emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) released per unit of another variable such as gross domestic product (GDP), output energy use or transport (IPCC, 2014). IPCC (2014). Climate Change 2014, Synthesis Report, Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report (5AR) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. IPCC.
Carbon price
Carbon price is the price per unit of avoided or released carbon dioxide (CO2) emission, or its CO2 equivalent. IPCC (2014). Climate Change 2014, Synthesis Report, Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report (5AR) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. IPCC.
Carbon tax
Carbon tax is a levy on the carbon content of fossil fuels (IPCC, 2014). IPCC (2014). Climate Change 2014, Synthesis Report, Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report (5AR) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. IPCC.
CH2
Methane CH2
CIF
Cost, insurance and freight
CITES
Convention on international trade in endangered species
Communication on Progress
Communication on Progress (CoP) is a voluntary, public report through which a company informs stakeholders about its efforts to implement the principles of the United Nations Global Compact (United Nations Global Compact, 2013). United Nations Global Compact (2013). UN Global Compact policy on communicating progress. Available at https://www.unglobalcompact.org/library/1851 (accessed 6 March 2019).
Comply-or-explain approach
Comply-or-explain approach is a reporting practice under which companies are invited to explain the reasons for not providing all requested information in their sustainability reports or for not publishing a sustainability report at all (UNCTAD, 2013). UNCTAD (2013). Best practice guidance for policymakers and stock exchanges on sustainability reporting initiatives. TD/B/C.II/ISAR/67. Geneva. 28 August.
Conclusions of the DMFAS Advisory Group, November 2017
Biennial meeting of the DMFAS Advisory Group to advise the Secretary-General on a range of issues related to the management of the Programme
Containerized transport
Freight transport using intermodal containers of standard dimensions, i.e. containers that can be moved seamlessly between ships, trucks, trains and other modes of transport as well as storage. The two most commonly used are the 20-foot and the 40-foot containers. They form the basis of the main units of measure currently applied in transport: the twenty-foot equivalent Unit (TEU) and the forty-foot equivalent unit (FEU) (World Shipping Council, 2019). World Shipping Council (2019). About the industry. Available at http://www.worldshipping.org/about-the-industry/containers (accessed 19 April 2019).
DAC
Development assistance committee
Data revolution
Data revolution refers to the transformative actions needed to respond to the demands of a complex development agenda, improvements in how data is produced and used; closing data gaps to prevent discrimination; building capacity and data literacy in “small data” and big data analytics; modernizing systems of data collection; liberating data to promote transparency and accountability; and developing new targets and indicators (see http://www.undatarevolution.org/data-revolution/).
Debt service
Payments made to satisfy a debt obligation, including principal, interest, and any late payment fees (IMF, 2014). IMF (2014). External Debt Statistics: Guide for Compilers and Users. IMF. Washington, D.C.
Debt sustainability
A country’s capacity to finance its policy objectives through debt instruments and service the ensuing debt (IMF, 2014). IMF (2014). External Debt Statistics: Guide for Compilers and Users. IMF. Washington, D.C.
DMFAS
Debt Management and Financial Analysis System Programme
Donor’s statement, January 2019
Annual meeting with the bilateral donors to discuss the directions, priorities and financial resourcing of the Programme’s work.
Dry bulk commodities
Raw materials that are shipped in large, unpacked parcels. They are usually classified as major and minor dry bulk commodities. Since 2006, the former includes iron ore, grains and coal, while the latter includes the rest of dry bulk commodities (UNCTAD, 2018). UNCTAD (2018a). Review of Maritime Transport 2018. United Nations publication. Sales No. E.18.II.D.5. New York and Geneva.
E-commerce
Sale or purchase of goods or services, conducted over computer networks by methods specifically designed for the purpose of receiving or placing of orders; it can involve business-to-business (B2B) or a business-to-consumer (B2C) transactions. (OECD, 2019) OECD (2019). Glossary of statistical terms. Available at https://stats.oecd.org/glossary/index.htm (accessed 19 April 2019).
Emission
Emission is the discharge of pollutants into the atmosphere from stationary sources such as smokestacks, other vents, surface areas of commercial or industrial facilities and mobile sources, for example, motor vehicles, locomotives and aircraft (OECD, 2019). OECD (2019). Glossary of statistical terms. Available at https://stats.oecd.org/glossary/index.htm (accessed 19 April 2019).
Employed in R&D in FTE
Employed in R&D in FTE is the ratio of working hours spent on R&D during a specific reference period (usually a calendar year) divided by the total number of hours conventionally worked in the same period by an individual or by a group (OECD, 2015) OECD (2015). Frascati Manual 2015: Guidelines for Collecting and Reporting Data on Research and Experimental Development. OECD Publishing.
EMPRETEC
EMPRETEC - a Spanish acronym for emprendedores (entrepreneurs) and tecnología (technology).
Energy intensity
Energy intensity is the ratio between gross inland energy consumption and GDP. It measures how much energy is required to generate one unit of GDP.
Entrepôt trade
If goods are imported from one country with the purpose of re-exporting to another, it is called Entrepot trade. Import duty is not levied on these goods. (WTO, 2008) WTO (2008). Definitions related to trade February. Available at http://detailsofworldtradeoranization.blogspot.com/2008/02/entreport-trade.html (accessed 18 June 2019).
EU
European Union
Export restrictiveness
The average level of tariff restrictions imposed on a country’s exports as measured by the MA-TTRI.
Export subsidies
Export subsidies refer to the granting of support by governments to some beneficiary entity or entities to achieve export objectives. Export subsidies may involve direct payments to a firm, industry, producers of a certain agricultural product etc. to achieve some type of export performance. In addition, export subsidies may include low cost export loans, rebates on imported raw materials and tax benefits such as duty-free imports of raw material. They can also take the form of government financed marketing. Most subsidies have existed in agriculture. (United Nations, 2019). United Nations (2019). SDG indicators: Metadata repository. Available at https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/metadata/ (accessed 14 May 2019).
External debt
Outstanding amount of those actual current, and not contingent, liabilities that require payment(s) of principal and/or interest by the debtor at some point(s) in the future and that are owed to nonresidents by residents of an economy (IMF, 2014). In this section, only medium- and long-term liabilities are considered. IMF (2014). External Debt Statistics: Guide for Compilers and Users. IMF. Washington, D.C.
F-gases
Fluorinated gases (F-gases)
FDI
Foreign direct investment Investment involving a long-term relationship and reflecting a lasting interest and control by a resident entity in one economy (foreign direct investor or parent enterprise) in an enterprise resident in an economy other than that of the foreign direct investor (FDI enterprise or affiliate enterprise or foreign affiliate) UNCTAD (2016). UNCTAD (2016). World Investment Report 2016: Investor Nationality: Policy Challenges. UN.
FOB
Free on board
Food price anomalies
Food price anomalies refer to abnormally high or low market prices for food commodities. The indicator relies on a weighted compound growth rate that accounts for both within year and across year price growth. The indicator directly evaluates growth in prices over a particular month over many years, taking into account seasonality in agricultural markets and inflation, allowing to answer the question of whether or not a change in price is abnormal for any particular period. (United Nations, 2019) United Nations (2019). SDG indicators: Metadata repository. Available at https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/metadata/ (accessed 14 May 2019).
FTE
Full Time Equivalent FTE refers to a Full Time Equivalent unit of labour. An FTE is the hours worked by one employee on a full-time basis. The concept is used to convert the hours worked by several part-time employees into the hours worked by an equivalent full-time employee (ideally the comparison is standardized for gender and industry sector).
GATT
General Agreement on Trades and Tariffs
GDP
gross domestic product
GERD
Gross domestic expenditure on research and development
Global Warming Potential
Global Warming Potential (GWP) is an index measuring the radiative forcing following an emission of a unit mass of a given substance, accumulated over a chosen time horizon, relative to that of the reference substance, CO2. The GWP thus represents the combined effect of the differing times these substances remain in the atmosphere and their effectiveness in causing radiative forcing (IPCC, 2014). IPCC (2014). Climate Change 2014, Synthesis Report, Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report (5AR) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. IPCC.
GNI
Gross national income
Goods loaded
Merchandise destined for export, also referred to as “outbound trade volumes” (UNCTAD, 2018a). UNCTAD (2018a). Review of Maritime Transport 2018. United Nations publication. Sales No. E.18.II.D.5. New York and Geneva.
Goods unloaded
Merchandise destined for import, also referred to as “inbound trade volumes” (UNCTAD, 2018a). UNCTAD (2018a). Review of Maritime Transport 2018. United Nations publication. Sales No. E.18.II.D.5. New York and Geneva.
GPT
Generalized Preferential Tariff
Greenhouse gases
Greenhouse gases are gases that cause the 'greenhouse effect' by letting solar radiation reach the Earth's surface and absorbing infrared energy emitted by the Earth. The concentration of some greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is rising as a result of human activities, leading to an increase of the Earth's average temperature. The most important of these gases comprise: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and fluorinated gases (F-gases), such as hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) (WMO, 2019). Throughout this chapter, they are referred to as critical greenhouse gases. WMO (2019). Greenhouse gases. Available at https://public.wmo.int/en/our-mandate/focus-areas/environment/greenhouse%20gases (accessed 11 June 2019).
GRI
Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)
GSP
Generalized System of Preferences
Gt
Gigaton
GTA
Global Trade Alert
HDI
Human development index
IAEG-SDG
Inter-agency Expert Group on Sustainable Development Indicators
ICT
Information and Communications Technology A diverse set of technological tools and resources used to transmit, store, create, share or exchange information. These resources include computers, the Internet, live broadcasting technologies, recorded broadcasting technologies and telephony. (UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2019) UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2019). Glossary. Available at http://uis.unesco.org/en/glossary (accessed 19 April 2019).
IFF
Illicit financial flow
IIA
International investment agreement They include two types of agreements: (1) bilateral investment treaties and (2) treaties with investment provisions. Treaties with investment provisions (e.g. a free trade agreement with an investment chapter) between two or more countries include commitments regarding cross-border investments (foreign investment or FDI), typically for the purpose of protection and promotion of such investments (UNCTAD, 2019a). UNCTAD (2019a). IIA Navigator. Available at https://investmentpolicyhubold.unctad.org/IIA (accessed 15 May 2019).
IIRC
International Integrated Reporting Council (IIRC)
Import restrictiveness
The average level of tariff restrictions on imports as measured by the TTRI.
IMTS
International Merchandise Trade Statistics
Investment guarantee
An insurance, offered by governments or other institutions, to investors to protect against certain political risks in host countries, such as the risk of discrimination, expropriation, transfer restrictions or breach of contract (UNCTAD, 2015). UNCTAD (2015). Investment Policy Framework for Sustainable Development. UN.
IPA
investment promotion agency
ISAR
International Standards of Accounting and Reporting
ITU
International Telecommunications Union
Land-use change
Land-use change refers to a change in the use or management of land by humans, which may lead to a change in land cover (IPCC, 2014). IPCC (2014). Climate Change 2014, Synthesis Report, Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report (5AR) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. IPCC.
LDC
Least developed country
LHS
Left Hand Side
Living wage
Living wage is defined by the Global Living Wage Coalition to mean the remuneration received for a standard workweek by a worker in a particular place sufficient to afford a decent standard of living for the worker and her or his family. Elements of a decent standard of living include food, water, housing, education, health care, transportation, clothing, and other essential needs including provision for unexpected events.
LLDC
Landlocked developing countries
MA-TTRI
An index measuring the average level of tariff restrictions imposed on exports.
Manufacturing value added
Manufacturing value added (MVA) is the net-output of all resident manufacturing activity units. It is obtained by adding up their outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs (see United Nations, 2019). Manufacturing can broadly be understood as "the physical or chemical transformation of materials, substances, or components into new products" (United Nations, 2008), consisting of sector C in the International Standard Industrial Classification of all Economic Activities (ISIC) revision 4 (United Nations, 2019).
  • United Nations (2008). International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC). Statistical papers / Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, Statistical Office of the United Nations Series M, No. 4,  Rev. 4. United Nations publication. Sales No. E.08.XVII.25. New York, NY.
  • United Nations (2019). SDG indicators: Metadata repository. Available at https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/metadata/ (accessed 14 May 2019).
Medium and high-tech industry
Medium and high-tech industry is an industry in which producers of goods incur relatively high expenditure on research and development (R&D) per unit of output. The distinction between low, medium, and high-tech industries is based on R&D intensity, i.e. the ratio of R&D expenditure to an output measure, usually gross value added. For a list of the particular economic activities, considered to be medium and high-tech, see (UNIDO, 2017). UNIDO (2017). Industrial Development Report 2018, Demand for Manufacturing: Driving Inclusive and Sustainable Industrial Development.
Minimum reporting requirement
Minimum reporting requirement refers to a core set of economic, environmental, social and governance elements of sustainability information requested from companies in their sustainability reports for the purpose of measuring SDG indicator 12.6.1. Only reports including this information are counted towards the indicator (UNCTAD, 2017). UNCTAD (2017). Enhancing comparability of sustainability reporting: Selection of core indicators for company reporting on the contribution towards the attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals. TD/B/C.II/ISAR/81. Geneva. 11 September.
MNC
Multinational corporation
MNE
Multinational enterprise
Mobile money
A service in which the mobile phone is used to access financial products and services. (GSMA, 2010) GSMA (2010). Mobile Money Definitions July. Available at https://www.gsma.com/mobilefordevelopment/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/mobilemoneydefinitionsnomarks56.pdf (accessed 10 April 2019).
Most favoured nation (MFN) tariffs
Most favoured nation (MFN) tariffs: are a tariff level that a member of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade of the WTO charges on a good to other members, i.e. a country with a most favoured nation status (See UNCTAD, 2018). It applies to imports from trading partners-members of the World Trade Organization (WTO), unless the country has a preferential trade agreement. It is the lowest possible tariff a country can assess on another country. UNCTAD (2018). Trade and Development Report 2018: Power, Platforms and the Free Trade Delusion. United Nations publication. Sales No. E.18.II.D.7. New York and Geneva.
N2O
Nitrous oxide (N2O)
NAFTA
North American Free Trade Agreement
Non-tariff measures (NTMs)
Non-tariff measures (NTMs) The official definition of NTMs is broad: NTMs are policy measures other than ordinary customs tariffs that can potentially have an economic effect on international trade in goods, changing quantities traded, or prices or both such as technical barriers to trade, price-control measures,.. A detailed classification could be found here: (UNCTAD, 2019a) UNCTAD (2019a). Classification of Non-Tariff Measures. Available at https://unctad.org/en/Pages/DITC/Trade-Analysis/Non-Tariff-Measures/NTMs-Classification.aspx (accessed 14 June 2019).
OECD
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Official development assistance
Official development assistance Resource flows to countries and territories which are: (a) undertaken by the official sector; (b) with promotion of economic development and welfare as the main objective; (c) at concessional financial terms (implying a minimum grant element depending on the recipient country and the type of loan). In addition to financial flows, technical co-operation is also included (OECD, 2019a). OECD (2019a). DAC glossary of key terms and concepts. Available at http://www.oecd.org/dac/dac-glossary.htm (accessed 15 May 2019).
Official international support
For the purpose of the IAEG-SDG, official international support refers to assistance in the form of official development assistance and other official flows (United Nations Statistics Division, 2019). United Nations Statistics Division (2019). SDG indicators: Metadata repository. See https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/metadata/ (accessed 14 May 2019).
Other dry cargo
All dry cargo except major and minor bulk commodities (UNCTAD, 2018a). UNCTAD (2018a). Review of Maritime Transport 2018. United Nations publication. Sales No. E.18.II.D.5. New York and Geneva.
Other official flows
Other official flows Transactions by the official sector with countries and territories which do not meet the conditions for eligibility as ODA, either because they are not primarily aimed at development or because they do not meet the minimum grant element requirement (OECD, 2019a). OECD (2019a). DAC glossary of key terms and concepts. Available at http://www.oecd.org/dac/dac-glossary.htm (accessed 15 May 2019).
Piketty (2014)
Piketty T (2014). Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Belknap Press. Cambridge, Mass.
PPP
purchasing power parity
Preferential Trade Arrangements
Preferential Trade Arrangements can be established under paragraphs 4 to 10 of Article XXIV of GATT (WTO, 2019a) between parties through which one party can grant more favourable trade conditions to other parties of the arrangement and not to other WTO members. WTO (2019a). The basic rules for goods. Available at https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/region_e/regatt_e.htm#understanding (accessed 14 June 2019).
Private flows
Consist of flows at market terms financed out of private sector resources and private grants. They include FDI, private export credits, securities of multilateral agencies and bilateral portfolio investment. Private flows other than FDI are restricted to credits with a maturity of greater than one year (OECD, 2019a). OECD (2019a). DAC glossary of key terms and concepts. Available at http://www.oecd.org/dac/dac-glossary.htm (accessed 15 May 2019).
Private non-guaranteed debt
Private non-guaranteed External debt of the private sector that is not contractually guaranteed by a public sector unit resident in the same economy (IMF, 2014). IMF (2014). External Debt Statistics: Guide for Compilers and Users. IMF. Washington, D.C.
Productive capacity building
Strengthening economic sectors – from improved testing laboratories to better supply chains – to increase competitiveness in export markets (Negin, 2014) Negin J (2014). Understanding Aid for Trade part one. Available at http://www.devpolicy.org/understanding-aid-for-trade-part-one-a-dummys-guide-20140228/ (accessed 19 June 2019).
Public bond debt
Public debt in the form of sovereign international bonds traded in international capital markets (UNCTAD, 2017). UNCTAD (2017). Debt Vulnerabilities in Developing Countries: A New Debt Trap? Volume I: Regional and Thematic Analyses. UNCTAD/GDS/MDP/2017/4 (Vol I). Geneva.
Public sector debt
All debt liabilities of resident public sector units to other residents and nonresidents (IMF, 2014). IMF (2014). External Debt Statistics: Guide for Compilers and Users. IMF. Washington, D.C.
Publicly guaranteed debt
Public and publicly guaranteed External debt liabilities of the private sector, the servicing of which is contractually guaranteed by a public unit resident in the same economy as the debtor (IMF, 2014). IMF (2014). External Debt Statistics: Guide for Compilers and Users. IMF. Washington, D.C.
R&D
research and development
R&D intensity
Research and development (R&D) intensity is defined as the ratio of gross domestic expenditure on research and development (GERD) to GDP (OECD, 2015). OECD (2015). Frascati Manual 2015: Guidelines for Collecting and Reporting Data on Research and Experimental Development. OECD Publishing.
R&D services
R&D services cover services associated with basic and applied research and experimental development, including activities in the physical and social sciences and the humanities (OECD, 2015, section 11.5). The definition used for international trade includes also testing and product development that may give rise to patents (United Nations et al., 2012, itemKey/P4DUMQL3). OECD (2015). Frascati Manual 2015: Guidelines for Collecting and Reporting Data on Research and Experimental Development. OECD Publishing. United Nations, IMF, OECD, European Commission, UNCTAD, UNWTO, and WTO (2012). Manual on statistics of international trade in services 2010 (MSITS 2010). Rev. 1, United Nations.
Remittances
Remittances are a cumulative measure consisting of three components: (a) personal remittances, (b) total remittances and (c) transfers to non-profit institutions serving households. They include cross-border remittance and resource flows (current and capital transfers in cash and kind), including migrants’ and short-term employees’ income transfers (personal remittances), acquired rights in social benefits (total remittances) and bilateral aid programmes (both private and public) to non-profit organizations (IMF, 2009). IMF (2009). International Transactions in Remittances : Guide for Compilers and Users (RCG). IMF. Washington, D.C.
  • IMF (2014). Government Finance Statistics Manual 2014. IMF. Washington, DC.
  • Research and development
    Research and (experimental) development comprise creative and systematic work undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge – including knowledge of humankind, culture and society – and to devise new applications of available knowledge (OECD, 2015), see also (United Nations et al., 2009, para 10.103). United Nations, European Commission, IMF, OECD, and World Bank (2009). System of national accounts 2008. Rev. 5, United Nations. OECD (2015). Frascati Manual 2015: Guidelines for Collecting and Reporting Data on Research and Experimental Development. OECD Publishing.
    Researchers
    Researchers are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, conducting research and improving or developing concepts, theories, models, techniques instrumentation, software or operational methods (OECD, 2015) OECD (2015). Frascati Manual 2015: Guidelines for Collecting and Reporting Data on Research and Experimental Development. OECD Publishing.
    Revealed comparative advantage
    Revealed comparative advantage in exports is the proportion of a country group’s exports by service category, divided by the proportion of world exports in the corresponding category.
    RHS
    Right Hand Side
    Sanitary and phytosanitary measures
    Any measure applied:(a) to protect animal or plant life or health within the territory of theMember from risks arising from the entry, establishment or spread of pests, diseases, disease-carrying organisms or disease-causing organisms;(b) to protect human or animal life or health within the territory of theMember from risks arising from additives, contaminants, toxins or diseasecausing organisms in foods, beverages or feedstuffs; (c) to protect human life or health within the territory of the Member from risks arising from diseases carried by animals, plants or products thereof, or from the entry, establishment or spread of pests; or (d) to prevent or limit other damage within the territory of the Member from the entry, establishment or spread of pests. Sanitary or phytosanitary measures include all relevant laws, decrees, regulations, requirements and procedures including, inter alia, end product criteria; processes and production methods; testing, inspection, certification and approval procedures; quarantine treatments including relevant requirements associated with the transport of animals or plants, or with the materials necessary for their survival during transport; provisions on relevant statistical methods, sampling procedures and methods of risk assessment; and packaging and labelling requirements directly related to food safety (UNCTAD, 2003). UNCTAD (2003). Course on Dispute Settlement - Module 3.9. WTO: SPS Measures. UNCTAD/EDM/Misc.232/Add.13. Available at https://unctad.org/en/Pages/DITC/TNCD/Dispute-Settlement-in-International-Trade.aspx.
    SASB
    Sustainability Accounting Standards Board
    SDG
    Sustainable Development Goal
    SIDS
    Small Island Developing States
    SITS
    Statistics of International Trade in Services
    SME
    Small- and medium-sized enterprise
    Soft infrastructure
    Ideas and conceptual frameworks that give shape and direction to what is eventually physically manifest (FutureStructure, 2013). FutureStructure (2013). What is soft infrastructure? November.
    South-South cooperation
    Broad framework of collaboration among countries of the South in the political, economic, social, cultural, environmental and technical domains. It includes trade, FDI, regional integration efforts, technology transfers, sharing of solutions and experts, and other forms. Involving two or more developing countries, it can take place on a bilateral, regional, intraregional or interregional basis (UNOSSC, 2019). UNOSSC (2019). About South-South and Triangular Cooperation. Available at https://www.unsouthsouth.org/about/about-sstc/ (accessed 10 June 2019).
    SPS
    Sanitary and phytosanitary
    Stocks-to-use ratio
    A convenient measure of supply and demand interrelationships of commodities. This ratio indicates the level of carryover stock for any given commodity as a percentage of the total use of the commodity (Womach, 2005). Womach J (2005). Agriculture: A Glossary of Terms, Programs, and Laws, 2005 Edition. Congressional Research Service Reports. The Library of Congress. Order Code 97-905. June. Available at https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7246/ (accessed 18 June 2019).
    Sustainability report
    Sustainability report is a document published by an entity describing the economic, social, environmental impacts caused by its activities; it is composed of a certain number of disclosures along the main pillars of sustainable development. Synonyms: sustainability reporting (GRI, 2019). GRI (2019). About sustainability reporting. Available at https://www.globalreporting.org/information/sustainability-reporting/Pages/default.aspx (accessed 19 April 2019).
    Tariff lines
    Tariff lines are measured as proportion of total number of tariff lines (in per cent) applied to products imported from least developed countries and developing countries corresponding to a 0% tariff rate in HS chapter 01-97. (see SDG metadata)
    Tariff trade restrictiveness index (TTRI)
    An index measuring the average level of tariff restrictions imposed on imports
    Tariffs
    Tariffs are customs duties on merchandise imports, levied either on an ad valorem basis (percentage of value) or on a specific basis (e.g. $7 per 100 kg). Tariffs can be used to create a price advantage for similar locally-produced goods and for raising government revenues. Trade remedy measures and taxes are not considered to be tariffs. (see SDG metadata)
    TBT
    Technical barriers to trade
    Technical Barriers to Trade
    Technical Barriers to Trade measures referring to technical regulations, and procedures for assessment of conformity with technical regulations and standards.
    Tier 1
    Tier 1 means that a SDG indicator has been classified by the IAEG-SDG as being conceptually clear, has an internationally established methodology and standards are available, and data are regularly produced by countries for at least 50 per cent of countries and of the population in every region where the indicator is relevant.
    Tier 3 indicators
    SDG indicator for which there is no internationally established methodology or standards are yet available for the indicator, but methodology/standards are being (or will be) developed or tested. (United Nations Statistics Division, 2019) United Nations Statistics Division (2019). Tier classification for global SDG indicators. Available at https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/iaeg-sdgs/tier-classification/ (accessed 14 May 2019).
    Tier III indicator
    SDG indicator for which there is no internationally established methodology or standards are yet available for the indicator, but methodology/standards are being (or will be) developed or tested. (United Nations Statistics Division, 2019) United Nations Statistics Division (2019). Tier classification for global SDG indicators. Available at https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/iaeg-sdgs/tier-classification/ (accessed 14 May 2019).
    Total resource flows
    In the context of the IAEG-SDG, these flows quantify the overall expenditures that donors provide to developing countries, including official and private flows, both concessional and non-concessional. Specifically, they include ODA, OOFs and private flows (United Nations, 2019a). UNCTAD (2019a). IIA Navigator. Available at https://investmentpolicyhubold.unctad.org/IIA (accessed 15 May 2019).
    Tourism direct GDP
    Measures direct contributions of tourism to national economy, since tourism does not exist as a separate industry in the standard industrial classification. Instead it is embedded in various other industries. (no SDG metadata)
    Tourism sector
    Tourism sector is the cluster of production units in different industries that provide consumption goods and services demanded by visitors. Such industries are called tourism industries because visitor acquisition represents such a significant share of their supply that in the absence of visitors, the production of these would cease to exist in meaningful quantity (UNWTO and ILO, 2014). (UNWTO and ILO, 2014). Measuring Employment in the Tourism Industries: Guide with Best Practices. Madrid.
    UNCTAD (2017, para 2)
    UNCTAD (2017). Final conclusions of the 11th DMFAS advisory group meeting November. Available at https://unctad.org/divs/gds/dmfas/news/Pages/DMFAS-Advisory-group.aspx (accessed 18 April 2019).
    UNDP
    United Nations Development Programme
    UNEP
    United Nations Environment Programme
    UNESCO
    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
    UNESCO UIS
    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Institute of Statistics
    United Nations (2019, para 8)
    United Nations (2019). Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 20 December 2018. External debt sustainability and development. A/RES/73/221. New York. 20 January.
    United Nations Global Compact
    United Nations Global Compact is a voluntary initiative based on company-level commitments to adopt sustainability and socially responsible principles and to take steps to support UN goals (United Nations Global Compact, 2019). United Nations Global Compact (2019). See https://www.unglobalcompact.org (accessed 6 March 2019).
    United Nations Secretary-General’s Independent Expert Advisory Group on a Data Revolution (2014)
    United Nations Secretary-General’s Independent Expert Advisory Group on a Data Revolution (2014). A world that counts: Mobilising the data revolution for sustainable development. Available at http://www.undatarevolution.org/report (accessed 4 June 2019).
    UNODC
    United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
    UNWTO
    The World Tourism Organization
    Weighted mean applied tariff
    Weighted mean applied tariff is the average of effectively applied rates weighted by the product import shares corresponding to each partner country (World Bank, 2019a). World Bank (2019a). Tariff rate, applied, weighted mean, all products (%). Available at https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/tm.tax.mrch.wm.ar.zs (accessed 14 June 2019).
    Worldwide weighted tariff-average
    Worldwide weighted tariff-average is used to aggregate tariff value for country groups. It is measured as value in percentage of weighted average tariffs applied to the imports of goods in HS chapter 01-97. It is recommended to make use of a weighting methodology based on the value of goods imported. The average level of customs tariff rates applied worldwide can be used as an indicator of the degree of success achieved by multilateral negotiations and regional trade agreements. (see SDG metadata)
    WTO
    World Trade Organisation

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